The most common surgery used to save a tooth is endodontic microsurgery, or apicoecotmy. When inflammation or infection persists in the bony area around the end of your tooth and root canal retreatment is not an option, endodontic microsurgery may be needed. The doctor will open the gum tissue near the tooth to see the underlying bone and to remove any inflamed or infected tissue. The damaged tissue is removed along with the end of the root tip. A root-end filling is placed to prevent re-infection of the root and the gum is sutured. In the absence of infection or inflammation the bone will naturally heal around the root over a period of a few months.